The networking world remains one of the last bastions of the mainframe computing design point. Back in 1987 Garth Gibson, Dave Patterson, and Randy Katz showed we could aggregate low-cost, low-quality commodity disks into storage subsystems far more reliable and much less expensive than the best purpose-built storage subsystems (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks). The lesson played out yet again where we learned that large aggregations of low-cost, low-quality commodity servers are far more reliable and less expensive than the best purpose-built scale up servers. However, this logic has not yet played out in the networking world.

The networking equipment world looks just like mainframe computing ecosystem did 40 years ago. A small number of players produce vertically integrated solutions where the ASICs (the central processing unit responsible for high speed data packet switching), the hardware design, the hardware manufacture, and the entire software stack are stack are single sourced and vertically integrated. Just as you couldn’t run IBM MVS on a Burrows computer, you can’t run Cisco IOS on Juniper equipment.

When networking gear is purchased, it’s packaged as a single sourced, vertically integrated stack. In contrast, in the commodity server world, starting at the most basic component, CPUs are multi-sourced. We can get CPUs from AMD and Intel. Compatible servers built from either Intel or AMD CPUs are available from HP, Dell, IBM, SGI, ZT Systems, Silicon Mechanics, and many others. Any of these servers can support both proprietary and open source operating systems. The commodity server world is open and multi-sourced at every layer in the stack.

Open, multi-layer hardware and software stacks encourage innovation and rapidly drive down costs. The server world is clear evidence of what is possible when such an ecosystem emerges. In the networking world, we have a long way to go but small steps are being made. Broadcom, Fulcrum, Marvell, Dune (recently purchased by Broadcom), Fujitsu and others all produce ASICs (the data plane CPU of the networking world). These ASICS are available for any hardware designer to pick up and use. Unfortunately, there is no standardization and hardware designs based upon one part can’t easily be adapted to use another.

In the X86 world, the combination of the X86 ISA, hardware platform, and the BIOS forms a De facto standard interface. Any server supporting this low level interface can host the wide variety of different Linux systems, Windows, and many embedded O/Ss. The existence of this layer allows software innovation above and encourages nearly unconstrained hardware innovation below. New hardware designs work with existing software. New software extensions and enhancements work with all the existing hardware platforms. Hardware producers get a wider variety of good quality operating systems. Operating systems authors get a broad install base of existing hardware to target. Both get bigger effective markets. High volumes encourage greater investment and drive down costs.

This standardized layer hasn’t existed in the networking ecosystem as it has in the commodity server world. As a consequence, we don’t have high quality networking stacks able to run across a wide variety of networking devices. A potential solution is near: OpenFlow. This work originating out of the Stanford networking team driven by Nick McKeown. It is a low level hardware independent interface for updating network routing tables in a hardware independent-way. It is sufficiently rich to support current routing protocols and it also can support research protocols optimized at high-scale data center networking systems such as VL2 and PortLand. Current OpenFlow implementations exist on X86 hardware running linux, Broadcom, NEC, NetFPGA, Toroki, and many others.

The ingredients of an open stack are coming together. We have merchant silicon ASIC from Broadcom, Fulcrum, Dune and others. We have commodity, high-radix routers available from Broadcom (shipped by many competing OEMs), Arista, and others. We have the beginnings of industry momentum behind OpenFlow which has a very good chance of being that low level networking interface we need. A broadly available, low-level interface may allow a high-quality, open source networking stack to emerge. I see the beginnings of the right thing happening.

· OpenFlow web site:

· OpenFlow paper: Enabling Innovation in Campus Networks

· My Stanford Clean Slate Talk Slides: DC Networks are in my way

James Hamilton



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